By John L. Phillips, David J. McComas (auth.), C. T. Russell (eds.)
For nearly 3 many years on the grounds that Mariner 2 flew by way of the planet in December 1962, Venus has been the topic of extreme research via either the Soviet and American house courses. because the intrinsic magnetic box of Venus is highly vulnerable, if it exists in any respect, we predict many phenomena of the higher surroundings and ionosphere of Venus to vary from their terrestrial opposite numbers. whereas flybys and landings of the numerous Venus missions supplied invaluable facts on those phenomena, orbital missions have been wanted for his or her precise research. Such orbital missions have been supplied by way of the Soviet application with Veneras nine and 10 in October 1975 and by way of the us with the Pioneer Venus Orbiter in December 1978. initially designed for a first-rate project of simply 243 days, the Pioneer Venus Orbiter remains to be functioning over a decade later, delivering information approximately - hours an afternoon via essentially the most energetic sunlight cycles so far. we think those transmis sions to proceed until eventually September 1992 while gravitation perturbations will decrease the periapsis of the PVO orbit in order that the spacecraft might be misplaced to the ambience. The Venera nine and 10 and the Pioneer Venus observations have ended in an explosion of information concerning the higher surroundings and ionosphere of Venus and their interplay with the sunlight wind. the provision of knowledge over an entire sunlight cycle has.
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Extra resources for Venus Aeronomy
The current system proposed in this model is shown in Figure 18 (left panel); note that the magnetosheath currents close partly along the ionopause and partly within the ionosphere itself. Cloutier et al. (1987) subsequently noted that the steady state model could not account for PVO magnetic field observations at high SZA during intervals of low solar wind pressure, and also found that the ionopause, based on observed ion density gradients, is not necessarily colocated with the current layer signaled by magnetic field gradients in the upper ionosphere.
From Perez-de-Tejada (l986b). 48 JOHN L. PHILLIPS AND DAVID J. McCOMAS plasma then expands into the nightside umbra, deflecting the magnetic field into the wake at an angle somewhat greater than for the inviscid case. Figure 31 illustrates this postulated field draping. Aside from questions of flow closure behind the planet and localized effects such as ionospheric holes, it appears that the overall draping of the magnetosheath magnetic field on the planetary nightside is fully consistent with the notion of an induced magnetotail which responds to the IMF orientation.
35. Time series of ion temperature and flow speed measured by Venera 10 on April 18-19, 1976. Trajectory is shown as a solid line at top. Labeled points refer to (1) the bow shock crossing; (2) entry into the boundary layer, seen a velocity decrease and temperature increase, and (3) entry into the low energy ion region. Adapted from Romanov et af. (1978). THE MAGNETOSHEATH AND MAGNETOTAIL OF VENUS 53 is a time series of Venera 10 ion temperature and flow speed measurements showing transit through the magnetosheath, the rarefaction region, and then into the low energy ion region, or plasma wake.
Venus Aeronomy by John L. Phillips, David J. McComas (auth.), C. T. Russell (eds.)