By I.M. Varentsov
The foremost a part of the world's excessive grade commercial manganese ore is being mined in supergene deposits. This booklet represents the 1st try and assemble not just educational but in addition advertisement information on all facets of the geochemistry of formation of supergene manganese ores. it's a certain account of the geology, geochemistry, mineralogy, experimental modelling experiences, mechanisms of formation procedures and geochemical evolution via geological time of manganese ores for all sorts of supergene deposits. specified emphasis is put on the overall geochemical version of supergene manganese ore formation, which might be utilized in geochemical exploration.
although supergene manganese ores were utilized by mankind because the early centuries, it is just over the past decade entire knowing of the character of geochemical tactics of formation of those deposits has develop into to be had and their capability as an fiscal source has been well-known opposed to different genetical varieties of manganese accumulations.
Audience: This immense and accomplished quantity is of curiosity to monetary geologists, mining engineers, geochemists, mineralogists and different really good geoscientists.
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Additional resources for Manganese Ores of Supergene Zone: Geochemistry of Formation
Oolites of Mn oxyhydroxides incorporated in a kaolinitic matrix containing lenses ofbleached kaolinite; 6. Pisolites (3-7 mm), small concretions ofMn oxyhydroxides and lenses ofbleached kaolinite incorporated in a red-brownish kaolinitic matrix; 7. Pisolites ofMn oxyhydroxides and their aggregates incorporated in a kaolinitic matrix (60%); 8. Oolites (1-3 mm) of Mn oxyhydroxides in a kaolinitic matrix (60%); 9. Pisolites (up to 7 mm) in a kaolinitic matrix (up to 75-80%); 10. Concretions of Mn oxyhydroxides in kaolinitic c1ay; 11.
I. Red-brownish kaolinitic clay; 2. Lenticular Mn, Fe oxyhydroxide nodules and hematite patches; 3. Small-globular, earthy-sooty Mn oxyhydroxides, containing smalllenticular patches of goethite, hematite, and ochreous material; 4. Lenses and pockets ofkaolinite; 5. Oolites of Mn oxyhydroxides incorporated in a kaolinitic matrix containing lenses ofbleached kaolinite; 6. Pisolites (3-7 mm), small concretions ofMn oxyhydroxides and lenses ofbleached kaolinite incorporated in a red-brownish kaolinitic matrix; 7.
There are no significant disagreements among most investigators on the sedimentary-diagenetic nature of the Mn carbonate ores. This conclusion was emphasized by the essential difference in the composition ofthe enclosing rocks: nontronite-smectite-hydromica-glauconitf' clay components, terrigenous quartz, carbonates ofMn and Ca in the southern depression. Whereas the orefree sediments, enclosing Mn oxyhydroxide ores of the northern depression are composed essentially of kaolinite, terrigenous residual quartz with admixtures of dickite, halloysite and rare relicts of hydromica, and smectite.
Manganese Ores of Supergene Zone: Geochemistry of Formation by I.M. Varentsov