Daniel A Foxvog's Introduction to Sumerian Grammar PDF

By Daniel A Foxvog

Creation to Sumerian Grammar

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Extra resources for Introduction to Sumerian Grammar

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The writing -me-éš (or -me-eš) begins to appear regularly in the later Ur III period. In Gudea and other Ur III texts, where final /n/ is not always written in a variety of contexts, the 1st or 2nd sg. copula can be written as just -me rather than -me-en. See textual examples at the bottom of this page. Study the following nominal sentences: ĝá-e lugal-me-en I (emphasized) am the king za-e ir11-me-en You (emphasized) are a slave ur-dnamma lugal-àm Ur-Namma is king nin-bi ama-ni-im That lady is his mother šeš-a-ni ad-da-zu-um His brother is your father lú-tur-e-ne šeš-me-eš The young men are brothers é-zu gal-la-àm Your house is big munus-bi ama lugal-a-kam That woman is the mother of the king é-bi ĝá-a-kam That house is mine (lit.

Study both the structure and the phonological and orthographic shapes of the following examples (deletion of the final /k/ of the genitive will be discussued below): {é} + {lugal+ak} + Ø > é lugal-la The house of the king {é} + {lugal+ak} + a > é lugal-la-ka In (-a) the house of the king 39 {dumu} + {lugal+ani+ak} + e > dumu lugal-a-na-ke4 By (-e) the son of his king {šeš+tur} + {lugal+mah+ak} + ene + Ø > šeš-tur lugal-mah-a-ke4-ne The young brothers of the lofty king {šeš+tur} + {lugal+mah+zu+ak} + bi + ene + Ø > šeš-tur lugal-mah-za-bé-ne Those young brothers of your lofty king Multiple Genitive Constructions A Sumerian nominal chain can feature a second or, less commonly, even a third embedded genitive construction.

En, -eš, etc. If the former, then the /e/ of the stem /me/ is deleted in the 3rd sg. form. If the latter, then the copular stem is just /m/ in all forms. In view of the variant /me/ which can appear in finite copulas (see below), the easiest solution is to posit two allomorphs, /m/ and /me/, which occur in different contexts. This is the position taken here. In keeping with the general hypothesis in this grammar that meaning is primarily carried by consonantal elements in the systems of Sumerian grammatical affixes, I would maintain that here, as is also the case when these subject pronouns occur in finite verbal forms, the /e/ is an epenthetic or helping vowel which is placed between consonantal elements to render them pronounceable and that the verbal subject paradigm is then formally just: -(e)n, -(e)n, -Ø, -(e)nden, -(e)nzen, -(e)š.

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Introduction to Sumerian Grammar by Daniel A Foxvog


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