By William Stewart Hoar
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SHAPE The heterogeneity of the gill system is well illustrated by the variation in shape of lamellae from a single gill arch (Fig. 13). Heterogeneity produces problems for quantitative analyses both in relation to surface area and also of the distribution of water flow through the gill sieve. There are many variations in shape of lamellae from similar regions of a wide variety of teleost species (Fig. 14). , Raia) may have horn-shaped projections at the anterior end of the lamellae, and this arrangement seems to be found in some other elasmobranchs (Cooke, 1980).
In some cases (Fig. 16B) water only enters the interlamellar spaces through small pores before being collected together on the outlet side once more through another set of pores. Although a supporting and protective function has naturally been emphasized for these structures, there is also the important possibility that they effectively slow down the water velocity past the lamellae and thus extend contact time. An analysis based on the dimensions of both the water and blood parts of the gas exchanger (Fig.
HUGHES teleosts. In these forms the opercular cavities, gills, and bony elements concerned with gill ventilation are equally developed on both sides. Following metamorphosis there is gradual development of the asymmetry of the adult form. The life of some flatfishes seems to alternate between swimming freely in midwater and periods when they are on the sea bottom, especially during migrations (Harden-Jones, 1980). It seems possible that during the midwater phases, the ventilation is equal on both sides of the respiratory system, whereas when on the bottow they make greater use of the special channel (Yazdani and Alexander, 1967; Al-Kadhomiy, 1984), which enables water from the ventral opercular cavity to be passed into the dorsal opercular cavity and thence to pass out via the dorsal opercular opening.
Gills, Part A: Anatomy, Gas Transfer, and Acid-Base Regulation by William Stewart Hoar