By Angharad E. Beckett (auth.)
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Extra info for Citizenship and Vulnerability: Disability and Issues of Social and Political Engagement
As MacLeod (1998: para. 1) has commented from a philosophical perspective: The typical noninstrumentalist position, by contrast, would be that for the action in the conclusion to be one it is rational for the agent to perform, it must serve an objective it is rational for the agent to pursue (…) As will be discussed at some length later within this chapter and in Chapter 6, understanding the nature of contested citizenship is key to understanding the nature of citizen participation. Modern/social-liberal theories of citizenship Rawls Since the publication of his work entitled A Theory of Justice in 1971, John Rawls’ ideas have inspired many subsequent theorists, whether they are sympathetic towards, or critical of his theories.
On the one hand, he notes, Rousseau’s version is founded on a conception of a civic space dominated by the sphere of public altruism; on the other hand, the stuff from which Rousseau’s citizens had of necessity to be created is the privatised bourgeois self of market 30 Citizenship and Vulnerability society. Famously, Marx’s solution to Rousseau’s contradiction is the utopia without contradictions: the Communist societies in which the stunted and divided personalities of societies based on the division of labour have at last been overcome.
The ﬁrst problem is that in stressing the need for citizens to commit to participation, some Neo-Republicans advocate fairly authoritarian measures to ensure that citizens actually do participate. Oldﬁeld (1990: 47) states that it may be necessary for the citizen to be ‘shamed, disciplined and sometimes terrorized into living “civic virtue” (…)’. By arguing thus, Oldﬁeld opens himself up to the same criticisms that have been directed at Rousseau for negating the rights of the individual. The second problem is that the Neo-Republicans tend to prioritize the actual process of participation over the substance of the common goal.
Citizenship and Vulnerability: Disability and Issues of Social and Political Engagement by Angharad E. Beckett (auth.)