Download PDF by Lanna Derry, Maria Connor, Carol Jordan: Chemistry for Use with the International Baccalaureate :

By Lanna Derry, Maria Connor, Carol Jordan

ISBN-10: 0733993753

ISBN-13: 9780733993756

For using IB Chemistry commonplace point

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Additional info for Chemistry for Use with the International Baccalaureate : Standard Level

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Similarly, the non-metal atom accepts electrons, becoming a negatively charged ion (an anion). The positive and negative ions are attracted to each other by electrostatic attraction, producing a neutral compound. An ionic bond can be defined as the electrostatic attraction between positive and negative ions. The ionic compound formed is hard and brittle and is often described as a ‘salt’. 2 (a) Sodium, a soft, silvery metal, and chlorine, a greenish gas, react vigorously. (b) White crystalline table salt is formed.

This sharing of one pair of electrons results in the formation of a single covalent bond between the atoms. The other six valence electrons do not take part in bond formation—they form three pairs of non-bonding electrons and will repel one another in space as far as possible. Similarly, chlorine with seven valence electrons shares one pair of electrons with hydrogen, which has only one electron, to form a diatomic molecule, HCl, with a single covalent bond. 5 The Lewis (electron dot) structure of a chlorine molecule (Cl2).

3 Deduce which ions will be formed when elements in groups 1, 2 and 3 lose electrons. © IBO 2007 Ionic compounds can be formed by any combination of positive and negative ions. In an ionic lattice a positive ion will always be surrounded by negative ions, and a negative ion will always be surrounded by positive ions. The exact configuration varies depending on the relative sizes of the ions involved. 4 Deduce which ions will be formed when elements in groups 5, 6 and 7 gain electrons. 5 State that transition elements can form more than one ion.

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Chemistry for Use with the International Baccalaureate : Standard Level by Lanna Derry, Maria Connor, Carol Jordan


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