By K. Kunte
Приведены сведения по распространению, экологии и поведению бабочек Индийского полуострова, способствующие развитию деятельности, связанной с наблюдением живых организмов. Книга представляет собой источник визуальной и фактической информации для всех, кто интересуется живой природой, стимулируя внимание к природному богатству Индии.
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Additional resources for Butterflies of Peninsular India
As to rank order in social Hymenoptera, especially well-known from polistine wasps, see West Eberhard (1969), Richards (1971), Wilson, (1971), Jeanne (1972), and Chapter 2 of this volume. In mantids, which can also defend territories (MacKinnon, 1970), conspecifics seem to be assailed with the same strokes as prey or enemies. However, an analysis of filmed records shows that a small detail of the prey-catching stroke is missing: the final closing of the tibia against the femur is omitted (Roeder, 1958, 1960) (Fig.
1. INSECT BEHAVIOR 23 defensive behavior, which, though working passively, nevertheless de pends on behavioral activity of many kinds. D. REPRODUCTION For sexual reproduction, two conspecifics of different sex must find each other and cooperate. Primarily, the species and sex of the partner has to be chosen. Then a more or less complicated courtship behavior serves to stimulate the partners and thus to synchronize their motivations and direct their actions. Escape or attack responses have to be inhibited to the point where the consummatory act, copulation, is achieved.
III. Analysis of Mechanisms A. INTRODUCTORY REMARKS Following this necessarily superficial survey of the main functional types, behavior will now be analyzed not according to its significance but its causes. Even here, however, the^biological objective fulfilled by behav ior should not be ignored because it can lead us to an understanding of its evolution. The question must be answered: what makes behavior as adaptive and efficient as we find it? Genetic endowment and individual experience are the only sources for such information; in each single case, their mutual contributions have to be unraveled.
Butterflies of Peninsular India by K. Kunte