By Sanford C. Goldberg
Sanford Goldberg argues right account of the verbal exchange of data via speech has anti-individualistic implications for either epistemology and the philosophy of brain and language. partly 1 he bargains a singular argument for anti-individualism approximately brain and language, the view that the contents of one's techniques and the meanings of one's phrases rely for his or her individuation on one's social and typical setting. partially 2 he discusses the epistemic size of data communique, arguing that the epistemic features of communication-based ideals depend upon good points of the cognitive and linguistic acts of the subject's social friends. In acknowledging an ineliminable social size to brain, language, and the epistemic different types of data, justification, and rationality, his e-book develops basic hyperlinks among externalism within the philosophy of brain and language, at the one hand, and externalism is epistemology, at the different.
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Additional resources for Anti-Individualism: Mind and Language, Knowledge and Justification
But for now I claim only that these conditions are necessary. I turn now, in chapter 2, to a more detailed look at condition (b), the reliable comprehension condition – or, if it is preferred, the non-accidental comprehension condition – on testimonial knowledge. My thesis will be that, if the testimonial route to knowledge has the properties it is widely regarded as having – in particular, if it is as prevalent and as efficient a route to knowledge as we ordinarily think it is – then public linguist norms are ineliminably implicated in the processes through which testimony is produced and consumed.
And he typically forms beliefs in what was said only when he discerns the case as one of assertion; but in such cases he always accepts the testimony (at least whenever he doesn’t already have the belief in question). Now suppose that Jim occupies a room full of liars. But suppose that, luckily, he happens upon the only truth-teller in the room. Observing her assertion, he immediately accepts what she says on the basis of her having said so. Here he is epistemically relying on what in fact is a reliable piece of testimony whose content he has reliably recovered; and yet his testimonial belief is not reliable for all that.
If I am right about this, then one might use this point about testimony, together with the idea that by its very nature assertion is the sort of speech act that can constitute testimony, to argue that assertion, too, is governed by an epistemic norm. To argue in this way would be to reverse the order of explanation above: here we hold that assertion is governed by an epistemic norm because testimony is. 14 For present purposes, all that is needed is that testimony is governed by an epistemic norm – whether or not that norm is the norm of assertion, and indeed whether or not assertion is governed by an epistemic norm in the first place.
Anti-Individualism: Mind and Language, Knowledge and Justification by Sanford C. Goldberg