By Henny Klein
Adverbs of measure shape an exciting a part of the lexicon: a variety of, multiform and everchanging. additionally they exhibit an outstanding style in distribution. during this research, the features of adverbs of measure are investigated from a semantic standpoint. the main target is on Dutch, yet earlier reports approximately English and German adverbs of measure are used to check with and to construct on.
The publication starts off with an advent on grading and gradability, and a category of the adverbs in response to the measure they convey. subsequent, different lexical resources from which the adverbs emerge and the method of grammaticalization are mentioned. the most a part of the booklet is dedicated to semantic regulations at the use of adverbs of measure, at the one hand regulations about the transformed parts, nevertheless these in regards to the surroundings. themes contain absoluteness as opposed to gradability, optimistic as opposed to destructive assessment, the strengthening of negation, polarity sensitivity, the logical homes of the adverbs themselves, and regulations to reduplication and stacking.
Besides the most textual content, 3 case reports are offered during which the pecularities of a few of the adverbs are investigated extensive, to teach extra intimately to complexities in their distribution. The appendix offers an outline of Dutch adverbs of measure.
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Extra resources for Adverbs of Degree in Dutch and Related Languages
4 Notes on Terminology In the literature about grading, the term intensifier is sometimes used as the neutral term to denote all words that express a degree, for instance by Bolinger (1972), whereas in other cases it is exclusively used to denote words that express a relatively high degree, in contrast to detensifiers or downtoners, which express a relatively low degree. I have adopted the latter convention as the least confusing. Adverbs of degree is used as the neutral term, covering all degree modifying adverbs.
C. een heel kopje water 'a whole cup of water' een heel kopje 'an unbroken cup' een heel probleem 'quite a problem' The adverb heel was originally used as a completive, but already in the 17th century its use shifted to that of an adverb of high degree (WNT 1882-). It modifies gradable adjectives, not absolute ones (23a,b). Heel was also used to strengthen negation, just like other completives such as in het geheel and helemaal, a form of use we still meet sometimes in colloquial speech (23c). (23) a.
3. 2 Details on the grading use of quantitative expressions Quantitative noun phrases In Dutch, the NP expressions of high quantity (een (heel) stuk, stukken, een heleboel, een hoop, 'a lot') may modify comparatives and (sometimes) other expressions with comparative semantics (6a,b), but they cannot be used to express degree with adjectives or verbs (6c,d), so they cannot be considered adverbs of degree. The negated NP expressions of (idiomatic) minimal quantity, such as geen haar 'no hair' or geen spat 'no spatter' that are used in emphatic negation cannot be used before adjectives either (7c).
Adverbs of Degree in Dutch and Related Languages by Henny Klein