By ACI Committee 345
The service-life functionality of concrete bridge decks, together with upkeep, fix, and rehabilitation wishes, is at once regarding the care exercised from the preconstruction via post-construction interval. This advisor offers innovations for bridge deck building in line with concerns of sturdiness, concrete fabrics, reinforcement, putting, completing and curing, and overlays.
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Additional info for ACI 345R-11: Guide for Concrete Highway Bridge Deck Construction
For the SCT presented here with Rs/v = 36 m-1instead of 20 for blocks, we will have increased compaction energy dissipation for cylindrical samples than for blocks. Furthermore, by modifying the device, we can compress the top part and keep the base, which is no longer subjected to the same forces as the SCT, fixed; friction is evaluated through a differential measurement of the force between the top and the bottom of the sample. The energy dissipated through friction may result in a 50% decrease in compaction force at the base of the sample for old steel molds, and almost zero if the steel surface is new.
Blocks have an even smaller aspect ratio. The difference in dry density of the sample, measured by gamma densitometry, does not exceed 1% in the case of double compaction. 3. 3 For manufacturing blocks, the Rs/v = Sc/v ratio – contact area over compacted soil volume – is around 20 m–1; for the cylindrical sample, it is around 36 m–1. 8. [VEN 93] chose a static compaction laboratory test with set displacement to get a constant volume (final volume of the block) in order to be consistent with what happens in this type of block press.
Particularly for stones like shale, shearing can produce yield, which makes its study necessary. Block on block shearing is a difficult mechanism to model as it involves varied and complex phenomena: attrition, physicochemical interactions and third body production. However, a simple and old law that provides a good match with experimental results is Coulomb’s law of friction [COU 73]. It is this law that we will use in the model in Part 3. According to Coulomb’s law of friction, the shear stress required to set a solid in motion is proportional to normal stress.
ACI 345R-11: Guide for Concrete Highway Bridge Deck Construction by ACI Committee 345