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By Duncan Head

ISBN-10: 1874101000

ISBN-13: 9781874101000

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In contrast, the record here (and Document 6, below) reports the confession as the result of the Eanna authorities’ interrogation. As in most cases in the Eanna, the result of the procedure here is that the guilty parties confess to their crimes (San Nicolò 1933b, 301). Since admissions of guilt are so common, it has been suggested that the “interrogation” may have involved torture (San Nicolò 1933b, 302). Confirmation comes from a later text written at Uruk during the Seleucid period. This text reports that thieves were caught and convicted “by means of the rack (literally, ladder) of interrogation” (simmiltu ša mašʾalti), which strongly suggests an implement designed to inflict physical pain (Sachs and Hunger 1989, No.

4 Ulūlu year 12 of Nabonidus, king of Babylon.  Reports about Theft in High Places Text: YBC 4176 Copy: Tremayne 1925 (YOS 7), No. 10 Translation/Discussion: Dandamaev 1984, 429–30; Joannès 2000a, 29; 2000b, No. 160 (pp. 1 Cyr (22 April, 538 BCE) Nabû-rēṣua, a slave of Lâbāši-Marduk, reports to the šatammu and the royal official in charge of the Eanna that his master’s son, Iddinaya, stole and hid a gem, apparently from a cultic image that was in Ištar-aḫa-iddin’s care. Nabûlū-dāri, another slave, confirms Nabû-rēṣua’s testimony.

Most of the documents from the Murašû archives show the family as agricultural managers and entrepreneurs who functioned as intermediaries between cultivators and landlords. Typically, people who owed monetary or service obligations because of land they possessed would turn to the Murašû family for credit to cover these duties. The “firm” would earn profit by managing these mortgaged properties (Jursa 2006, 113–14). Extending credit required the Murašû family to have a source of silver, probably from trade of agricultural goods.

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Achaemenid Persian Army by Duncan Head


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