By Alan Mitchell, Jean-Paul Mouchet
This functional guide brings jointly a variety of bibliographic info on irregular pressures and provides the sensible adventure of the authors and diverse specialists inside of Elf-Aquitaine. essentially destined for everyday use by way of subsurface geologists and drilling engineers at any place they're faced with the issues of overpressure, it describes a few of the origins of strain anomalies, and info the tools on hand for his or her prediction, detection and overview. it's going to even be precious to petroleum geologists, petroleum engineers and reservoir engineers as a reference guide.
record of critical Abbreviations
desk of Contents
1. strain strategies
2. The Origins of Non-Hydrostatic irregular Pressures
three. Prediction and Detection
four. Quantitative strain review
five. precis and total Conclusions - support Chart
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Extra resources for Abnormal Pressures while Drilling - Origins, Prediction, Detection, Evaluation
In fact, for the thermal effect to be significant the system must be perfectly closed, since creation of overpressure is associated with a very small increase in the volume of water. This means that even the smallest leak will reduce or even cancel out the thermal effect. Whether the expansion effect gives rise to any overpressure will depend on the extent to which the rate of expansion due to the rise in temperature matches the dewatering rate. Even so, since the fluid expands so little, clays are usually sufficiently permeable to allow the additional volume to be dissipated in a short geological time given a "normal" geothermal flux.
Clay evolution during dehydration (Burst, 1969, reprinted by permission of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists). The chemical composition of the system can also influence the process. A very high concentration of K+ cations would favour illitization at shallow depths. Conversely any scarcity would retard the process and maintain the interstratified layers to greater depths. The volume of water released at stage II would be 10 Yo to 15 YOof clay volume (BURST, 1969 ; MAGARA, 1975 ; FERTL,1976).
In practice it is advisable to establish normal compaction trends on at least a regional basis. 2. 1. 1). In accordance with the laws of hydrodynamics such movements are away from zones of high potential towards areas of lower potential. In the Pressure f I Pressure \ t Hydrostatic pressure \ Abnormal Dressure \ I a b Fig. 38. 64 - Pressure changes - Transition zone.
Abnormal Pressures while Drilling - Origins, Prediction, Detection, Evaluation by Alan Mitchell, Jean-Paul Mouchet