By Walter H. Fertl
Petroleum formation pressures
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Additional info for Abnormal Formation Pressures: Implications to Exploration, Drilling, and Production of Oil and Gas Resources
Focal-plane solutions indicate rightlateral strike-slip faulting. , 1970). Osmotic phenomena As early as 1748, Nollet described an experiment in which an animal bladder acted as a semipermeable membrane, in the presence of a pressure differential. The first detailed quantitative study of osmotic pressure is found in a series of investigations by Pfeffer in 1887. Basically, an osmotic pressure can arise when two solutions of different concentration, or a pure solvent and a solution, are separated by a semipermeable membrane.
Earthquakes. Earthquakes may cause compression in subsurface formations such as aquifers and hydrocarbon reservoirs. Earthquakes have probably ABNORMALLY HIGH FORMATION PRESSURES 33 caused such sudden changes in pore fluid pressures throughout present and past geologic times. An apparent effect is the sudden rise in the groundwater level, sometimes causing springs to start flowing again. Such forces generally operate in shallow aquifers but, as observed in petroleum reservoirs, are sometimes also found at greater depth.
Salt domes and associated overpressures have been encountered in drilling operations on a worldwide basis, both on- and offshore. Sandstone dikes. Sand dikes, similar to shale diapirism, are an overpressure phenomenon. Localized loading of sand in relatively mobile conditions (Laubscher, 1961)causes high pore fluid pressures which are equilibrated by formation of sand dikes. Oomkens (1966)discussed this phenomenon caused by the loading characteristics of migrating dunes that move over impermeable clayey surfaces, thereby locally increasing pore fluid pressures in underlying water sands.
Abnormal Formation Pressures: Implications to Exploration, Drilling, and Production of Oil and Gas Resources by Walter H. Fertl