By Jane H. Hill
In a single of the main thorough stories ever ready of a California language, Hill's grammar experiences the phonology, morphology, syntax and discourse beneficial properties of Cupe?o, a Uto-Aztecan (takic) language of California. Cupe?o shows many strange typological positive aspects, together with break up ergativity, that require linguists to revise our realizing of the improvement of the Uto-Aztecan kin of languages in historic and areal viewpoint.
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Extra info for A Grammar of Cupeno (University of California Publications in Linguistics)
1. Sounds and spelling (36) a. amu ‘will hunt’ b. pe’amu ‘3 S hunted’ (37) a. awelve ‘grown’ b. a’welvem ‘adults, grown up things’ 21 A’welvem, in (37b), is underlyingly /’a-’awelve-m/. 3. , sææis ‘six’, guviæærnu ‘government’, puæænti ‘bridge’ from Spanish seis, gobierno, puente). Syllable nuclei consist of either short or long vowels. Syllable-final glides can be shown to be consonants in their treatment in phonological processes. 7), which provide tests for the status of syllable codas as vowels or consonants.
3. S YLLABLE STRUCTURE . All syllables in Cupeño exhibit onsets. Syllable onsets always consist of a single consonant. There are no syllable-initial consonant clusters in native vocabulary (but cf. initial consonant clusters with the “foreign” sound r in loanwords such as traapu ‘cloth’, from Spanish trapo, and kriitu ‘streetcar’, possibly from English streetcar). While root-initial glottal stops are not written in the practical orthography in word-initial position, they are written, and are easily perceived, following a vowel-final prefix as in (36b), or in CV- reduplication of vowel-initial words as in (37b).
Two vowels appear before the plural suffix: i and a. Before the plural suffix, of course, we cannot predict the quality of the vowel as we can with the NPN suffixes, by which consonant appears, since the plural suffix has only one form, -m. The consonant of the preceding non-possessed noun suffix does not determine the vowel, as can be seen in the following examples, where the vowel is always a regardless of the shape of the non-possessed noun suffix. (75) a. b. c. d. isi-ly ‘coyote’, isly-am ‘coyotes’ kika-t ‘householder, dweller’, kikt-am ‘householders’ kawa-l ‘wood rat’, kawl-am ‘wood rats’ akni’i-sh ‘linnet’, akni’ch-am ‘linnets’ 36 Phonology Instead, in this case whether the vowel before plural -m is i or a depends on whether there has been deletion or epenthesis in the noun root.
A Grammar of Cupeno (University of California Publications in Linguistics) by Jane H. Hill